Since 2005, the Chasi Mulia Adivasi Sangha (CMAS), primarily a movement of tribals freed from bonded labour practices, have been a powerful force for tribal land restoration (recovering 2500 acres of fertile land) and also stopping liquor trade in the Narayanpatna block of the Koraput district in Odisha. The state Chief Minister and Revenue Minister were initially appreciative of the CMAS and declared measures to ensure the return of land grabbed by non-tribals to tribals.
In 2007-2008, CMAS began resisting bauxite mining on their lands, mainly in the Deomali and Maliparbat regions. This provoked the displeasure of the state government and the local pro-mining mafia. The conflict intensified, CMAS became branded as Maoist-supporters and were targeted by the police, illegal private armed local groups were also created to curtail the anti-mining activism of CMAS.
Nachika Linga, the leader of CMAS was arrested in 2014, while his assistant Singana was killed on 20th November 2009 by the police. Hundreds of CMAS activists have since been illegally arrested and some have died inside the jail in Koraput.